The oldest report about Mašťov comes from 2nd half of the 12th century when prince Soběslav I.gave Mašťov dominion toMilhostovi as a retirement gift. He is so the first known holder of Mašťov. His son, Milhost Jr. of Mašťov askedin 1191 abbot Erkenbert from the Cistercian monastery in Waldsachsen for a group of monks to found a new monastery in Mašťov and to help cultivate the region around here. The Cistercians came as early as in spring next year. They were immediately given lavish presents by Milhost - total 15 Czech villages, 2 residences and income from a market site. Also Germanization came to the region together with them .
No sooner had grey monks settled here than first disputes began to appear. Milhost, intending, due to the Cistercians, to multiply his fortune, didn´t want to waive his influence over given territory, monks didn´t however want to submit. The quarrel, going on 4 years, had to be decided as late as by Jindřich Břetislav, Czech prince of the house of Premyslides, by a confirmation document for the monastery in 1196. Quarrels didn´t even after then stop. When after then a feudal lord of Osek -Slavek of the house of Hrabišic looked for a suitable convent, Milhost offered him his monks. Some historians say that they were simply expelled, whatever the truth might be, it is sure that in 1197 the Cistercians left Mašťov and found in the following year a new monastery in Osek by Duchcov. Countrymen from Germany followed them to found new settlements.
Unfortunately not too many reports are kept from 13th and 14th centrury, a lot of events is thus undiscovered. In the second half of the 13th century the small town belonged to the lords of Mašťov, maybe to Milhosts´descendants. First known of them was Vratislav of Mašťov, who became in
In 14th century dominion of Mašťov is divided in a few holders. One of them is Rubín of Mašťov, followed by Petr of Mašťov. Around the half of the 14th century the village enjoyed a great significance proved by a local parish church keeping a priest and two clerics. Another owner of the dominion was from 1391 Aleš z Dubé, member of a mighty house and holder of the castle Egerberk. His son, Jindřich Škopek z Dubé, passed the village over in 1408 to the lords of Hertenberk. Mašťov is more and more important and early in the 15th century it became a rich market town, ranking to towns, such as Žatec or Louny, standing on fortified castle over the town (since late of the 13th century) where a king´s tax official had his residence..As over the whole country, even this site was affected by conflicts, resulting from dissatisfied poor people and from Jan Hus´teachings.
Outbreak of the war was inevitable. In 1421 Žižka´s troops passed to the North Bohemia to swing other towns in its favour. On 15th March the Hussites reached Chomutov that they captured at 2nd go and then they went on marching through Žatec to Kadaň, down to Mašťov. The holder of the castle - Habart z Hertenberk – let the gates opened and joined the Hussites. After their departure the Hussite garrison stayed here. In Sept .1421 crusade troops stood in front of Mašťov. Despite brave defence the castle was defeated at last. Mašťov and other villages around were massacred. The crusaders were at last defeated by Žatec, six years later however Mašťov became a battle site again. This was when the 4th crusade campaign invaded Bohemia. The village was occupated again, the crusaders were however shortly thereafter expelled again.
After Hussite wars had ended Petr z Vrše became the holder of the dominion. He was followed by Vilém z Nečtin, who assigned the town some privileges and added in 1444 his shield to the municipal coat of arms. Then it was Vilém ze Žlutic, who became for a short time a new holder, but as early as 1454 it was Beneš z Kolovrat, who was given Mašťov as a feudal tenure from the king Ladislav Pohrobek. This is how a new branch of the mighty house of Kolovrat (originated from Ročov of the Louny area) –the Kolovrat-Mašťov arose. They ran the town for following 80 years.
The roots of the Hussite tradition and the Czech tradition were so tight that even after 70 years it was not possible to make understood in German here. The following member of the Kolovrats - Jan Mašťovský z Kolovrat – became at the end of 15th century captain of the Žatec region, his follower Václav Mašťovský z Kolovrat sold in 1530 the whole dominion to the house of Lobkovic. First lord of Lobkovic governing Mašťov was Jan Jr. from Lobkovic, who confirmed privileges gained in the past for the town in
By this time a new Martin Luther´s Reformation movement came to our country. Jáchym became its great follower and both Catholic and Protestant priests were living at the dominion, which should later have resulted in great troubles. Bohuslav Felix z Lobkovic, lord of Hasištejn and Líčkov became a new holder of the dominion, when he bought it at 32 000 sixties Meissen groschens. His son Jan Valdemar z Lobkovic gave 1569 the Mašťov inhabitants a town hall and freed them from paying contributions. In 1571 he had built a Renaissance chateau in site of the former fort and castle. Finally he lost most of his fortune and went away abroad, where he died around 1595-97 without a male heir and Mašťov went over to ownership of his grandsons, sons and an only daughter Eva, married to the house of Švamberk.
It was in the period of Lobkovic government when religious quarrels between the Catholics and Protestants culminated. Regardless of this Mašťov was a flourishing town amidst emerging economy. IN 1564 there was own Latin school,
In 1603 (according to some sources 1604) the dominion gained a new owner. It was the captain of the Žatec region - knight Prokop Dvořecký z Olbramovic. As he was a follower of the Czech Estate resistance against the Habsburg, he was in 1621 executed. Opinions of the following history of the dominion are different. Some sources say that for a short time (1610-1613) dominion belonged to the knight Václav Kaplíř from Sulevice, other ones say that Dvorecký sold Mašťov region right to the house of Štampach. It is sure that it was Matyáš Štampach who owned the dominion until
The Habsburg didn´t forgive the Štampach this gesture - in 1622 they were condamned to loss of all their property. Jan Jindřich Štampach left in 1628 to another country with the whole family. It was alike with most noble stocks around here, only the house of Lobkovic managed to keep their fortune.
It was then a Spanish general in the services of the house of the Habsburg, Vilém Verdugo – one of the victors in the battle at the White Mount, who became in
Vilém Verdugo bequeathed the dominion his son Jáchym Verduga. This confirmed in 1643 all existing rights and restored liberty, on condition of abslute fealty to be sworn.
In 1662 Earl from Hradec Králové - Jan František Goltz became a new dominion holder. The Goltz belonged to a very fierce nobility, cruelly exploiting its villeins, under their rule complulsory labour lasted from 7a.m. to 4:30p.m. (in winter), or 3:45a.m. to 8:15p.m.!! (in summer). Drudgery was quite usual at all dominions, uprising against a manorial nobility had to be expected in the nearest time. Uprising broke out around
The dominion belonged to the Goltz over 130 years. During their rule the chateau was rebuilt, there arose a seigneurial brewery, in 1719 the town was hit by fire and it burnt nearly out and at last it got rid of its rights. Not earlier than 1735 Imperial Charter of the emperor Charles VI. took it back the status of a town. Mašťov was then given all its previous rights.
In the years 1713-14 Maťov is hit again with plague. 38 persons died during a few months. A strict quarantine was imposed on the town. For three quarters of a year nobody was allowed inside or outside. Huge fear of plague made the town survive only thanks to villagers from surrounding villages bringing food to Mašťov border. The phrase "fear of Mašťov" comes from that time. Regular fires were other hard knocks for the town. A big fire in 1719 was followed by the fire of 1791, by which 23 houses and 18 barns burnt out. Third time of bedluck there was a great bad harvest in 1770-71, followed by hunger, poverty and high cost of living. Some sorts of foodstuffs couldn´t be bought at all – unless exchanged for perquisites, illnesses appeared again, this time e.g. a rotten fever, decimating whole families.
When not through plague, fire or poverty, the town was being destroyed by soldiers. In 1742 the imperial army was accommodated in Mašťov, requisiting all food and feed for horses, stoling and destroing the harvest. 20 years later it was 80 Prussian soldiers, who came here demanding protection money under threat of burning the town. People remembering a pernicious fire that they hadn´t yet completely recovered of, were rather glad to pay. The last dominion holder Arnošt Jan Goltz shot himself in 1792 at the chateau of Mašťov. Arnoštov was the last male heir of the family of Goltz, and Vojtěch Mladota of Solopysk became the holder of dominion according to the last will and testament.
At the end of the 18th century the idea of the Enlightenment spread out over Europe accompanied with the new epoque. In 1781 Josef II. abolishes serfdom, Catholic Church is not as much mighty as before. In France broke out the revolution, followed by Napoleon´s wars (the same as all previous ones) and they don´t avoid even Mašťov. In particular it was in 1813, when 30 000 Austrian soldiers were camping here under command of generals Hohenlohe of Bartenstein and Scheffer. After they have left there remained but ravages.
In 1835 the dominion was bought by the countess Gabriela of Ditrichstein. Until those times Mašťov was a pure agricultural region, now it is also industrial enterprise to start to develop. Coal mining at the Jan Nepomucký and František mines sheep breeding together with the business with wool and breed of geese among the poor is starting up. In lower lands all sorts of corn, peas, lentils, potatoes and hops are grown, orchards and gardens are set up. Fish farming is also successful those days – the whole dominion owned 10 ponds with carp stocking. Exploitation in surrounding woods, manufactured immediately at the own sawmill in Mašťov, Vilémov and Obrovice. Mašťov operates also its mill. It was Evžen Karel Černín z Chudenic who became the last dominion holder in 1845.
The Act on abolition of serfdom was enacted in September 1848. Two years later villages became independent self-governing units. Industry starts to develop, mechanization is being introduced into agriculture, both business and transportation grows. Mašťov is getting thus in financial troubles, as it has to care for construction of roads, repairs of communal estates and for public buildings. A building of school became in 1871 one of the first public constructions in Mašťov. In the same year there was set up a post office, 5 years later also a telegraphing office started its activities. In
Mašťov is the town having always badluck for fires. There were even several fires again in the town in the 2nd half of the 19th century. First it was in 1859, when 27 granaries with corn burnt off. Further on there was another fire, by which 12 full barns were destroyed in 1862. Damage from both fires were as huge that there was organized a collection over the whole Bohemia to help hit Mašťov. 9 years later the whole Kostelní street burnt off. The voluntary firemen club was set up in
Development of industry and of the town itself is however retarded through outbreak of the World War I.. Mašťov´s men enlist in 1914 to the front. A year later refugees from Halič and Bukovina are coming here, and the municipal authority has to take care of them. Rationing is launched for flour, bread, later also for potatoes. Poverty and hunger is growing each day of war, people suffer from shortage of clothing and shoewear…the most poor suffer from malnutrition. End of war is a real liberation for everybody.
In 1918 was declared the independent Czechoslovak Republic. Thre was a campaign in the border area for creating Deutschbohmen, declared in a hurry on the following day in Vienna. An independent German state formation on the historical territory of Bohemia might have been concerned. This idea broke however soon down and the Czech border area was occupied by the Czech army and government. Mašťov was quite uncared after the war and had to solve lots of things at a time. There was a great trouble in the shortage of flats, the Poor Committee had a lot to do. In
The following 30ies brought the economic crisis and for many citizens of Mašťov the fight for the basic living conditions. Unemployment rose steeply, the poorhouse as well as the hospital were soon full. Enormous social differences begin to rise. The town is up to its ears in debts, its economy is permanently passive. In spite of a very bad situation people want to enjoy themselves and thus a cinema is opened here in 1929, which however has to be closed again after two years due to a number of debts. In 1933 there is built up a summer beach near the swimming pool by a tourism club and a cinema is opened in the same year. Also a petrol station and Baťa´s branch are set up in Mašťov.
After Hitlera had come into power and Henlein entered the politics scene, a Nazi destructive propaganda began spread out in 1933 even in Mašťov. There were more and more local Nazi, situation between the Czechs and German people was more and more tense. Mobilization takes place in May and September, Czechoslovak army arrives also to Mašťov. It is followed however by Munich´s treasury and then the Czech and Jewish families, together with the army, leave the town. The coming war claimed also the first died citizen of Mašťov. It was an unknown soldier perished by a shooting incident in the fight against a German guard. Mašťov (now Maschau) became part of the Hitler´s IIIrd empire. A new order has been launchad - local communists and anti-fascists are "emphatically advised" by the Gestapo, all political parties but the Nazi are cancelled. The World War II breaks out within a year.
Mašťov´s men leave to fight for the Great Germany, 121 men are called up into Wehrmacht as of November 1941. War prisoners are set to work at the peasants place – first the French, then Yugoslavians, Ukrainians and Russians. Remaining Jewish families´property is confiscated and families themselves were pursued according to Nazi´s rascial laws. Former Czech school in the square turned into hostel for Hitler Jugend, the chateau served as a hostel for German girls caalled out for a one-year work, towards the end of the war it turned into a military hospital. From the spring 1945 on the town is full of German refugees from the East.
On 12th May 1945 Mašťov was freed by the Sowiet Army. Soldiers were accommodated in farm buildings of the village. The Army set out then for Doupovské mountains – one of the last shelters of the SS troops. The Sowiet troops leave away during the autumn. There is a guard unit consisted of the soldiers of Ludvík Svoboda´s the 1st Czechoslovak army corps in the UdSSR, who stayed at the chateau until demobilization in 1946. It is in June when ex-inhabitants, who had to leave Mašťov in 1938 begin to come back. By the Order of the President of the republic all traitors´, collaborationists´and theGerman´ s property is confiscated and German population, except for the anti-fascists are evacuated from the Czechoslovakia. New settlers from Bohemia, Moravia and Slovakia, together with demobilized soldiers – Volhynian Czechs, take hold of empty estates.
On the1st September a Czech school opens, the National Northbomian Unity is established, both bakeries operate again, as well as a mixed products shop, ironmonger´s shop and a lot of other trades and enterprises. A SNB station has its residence at the chateau. A committee for setting up JZD was constituted in November 1949, one year later there were adapted barns for shedding a cattle. It was followed by a cowshed, a pigsty and a poultry farms. An open-air school was established at the chateau in 1949 and a half year later a children´s house. Due to inflow of children the local school was extent first to a double-class, later to a four-class one, down to a fully organized eight-year school in 1955. Closing down of villages due to setting up a military training area around the Doupovské Mountains initiates other inflow of the population to Mašťov in 1953.
The 60ies are years of building up in Mašťov. Above all the houses were redeveloped, the community center is under construction, the square is given the shape of a park and also a football ground is setting up. There occurred however serious problems with water here. Eighty years old main pipeline, lead by gravity into three fountains in the town, began to fail and thus the construction of a group water pipeline for Mašťov, Radonice and Vilémov is started in 1967. Mašťov is but a large construction site. In June 1967, when works on the pipeline are not yet finished, starts the construction of a prefab housing estate, public sewerage system and STP. The housing estate is finished in 1969 and soon thereafter first tenants move here. Then there are built new self-service shops, new asphalt roads and pavements, until works are brought to an end (after more than 15 years). Appearance of the town has completely changed.
In the 70ies about 40% population work in agriculture, the other in industry and services. In
The 80ies are years of further building. One whole street of terraced houses was built up, equipment of the swimming pool is getting improved, a community centre is rebuilt and sights repaired.
It was Stanislav Dvořák, who became the first after-revolution mayor until December 1994. It was these days that the community had the roofs of the primary school and town hall repaired. There was built up a STP at the swimming pool, rebuilt an after-school club building, released later within the restitution. In December 94 Josef Slunéčko took the office of a mayor, vice-mayor became Jiří Kubík, both are in the office until now. After initial troubles it was managed to in 1995 to build up three flats in the ground floor of the prefab houses and in 1996 began overall electrification of the village, followed by disappearance of wires from the streets, telephone line was attached to each house, public lighting was completed. Then it was the square that was repaired, new pavements built over the whole village and roads repaired. It was in this year that tomb of the family of Mladota of Solopysky being village´s property managed as well to be repaired.
It can be said that there is always something to be repaired in the village – in the years 97 to 2001 it was managed – due to the country renewal program – to build up a car park near the Old people´s home, to build on a fire station for local firemen, who are doing well, three following years they have been the best within a district and the second within the region, they are the largest organization of the village and are engaged to a great extent in the village in village works, the flat no. 119 was built up there.
The roof and the facade on the community centre were repaired and, as the best, there was made exchange of windows and doors of the primary school, built up a waste disposal yard and liquidation followed by reforesting of the black dump.
Life of this village does not cover only work – traditional August pilgrimages take place here, there are a few balls and dancing parties, sport matches performed both by sportsmen and firemen are also given here. The community has also after long years been given a place on the maps of the Czech tourist club, statues brought here from extinct villages after coal mining are available, the St. Mary´s church roof and internal plasters were repaired, these days the village is waiting for entry in the book of immovables for St. Barbora church ruin, which managed to be cleared out and secured. An open-air swimming pool is opened here in summer, you can go walking around here.
The village has competed within the village renewal program since 1996 and it gains some award every year. The most precious one is the Blue band for social life from 1999 and it was the first in competition of libraries in 2001, when the library advanced to the state round for the best library.
References: Valeš, V.: 800 let Mašťova. Praha 1989
Sedlák, M.: Historický průvodce Karlovarskem. Plzeň 1962
Bílek - Jangl - Urban: Dějiny hornictví na Chomutovsku. Chomutov 1976